In transgenic tomato plants expressing GUS under the SlSUS1 promoter, expression in the stem was observed mainly in the xylem (Goren et al., 2017). ... plants (and certain bacteria and algae) produce both of these as the result of a complex process known as photosynthesis. Sucrose synthase in legume nodules is essential for nitrogen fixation. (2004). sucrose accumulation in the cytosol, starch accumulation in the chloroplast has also been correlated with an inhibition of A (Gucci et al., 1991a, 1991b; Schaffer et al., 1986). Functional dissection of sugar signals affecting gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. SuSy proteins are usually homotetramers with an average monomeric molecular weight of about 90 kD (about 800 amino acids long). The structure of sucrose synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and its functional implications. Sucrose synthase may also play other important roles, in addition to its role in Suc cleavage. The occurrence of strong end-product inhibition appears to be correlated with high acid-invertase activity in fully expanded leaves. (2016)]. Mol. A reassessment of the role of sucrose synthase in the hypoxic sucrose-ethanol transition in Arabidopsis. A., Luan, S., Wi, S. G., Bae, H., Lee, D. S., and Bae, H. J. The rate of end‐product (sucrose, starch, amino acids) synthesis determines the rate at which Pi is recycled back to the reactions of photosynthesis and anything that restricts triose phosphate utilization could effectively limit photosynthesis. 6. 46, D1190–D1196. Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2007.02.001, Komina, O., Zhou, Y., Sarath, G., and Chollet, R. (2002). A recent study found that a SUS3 allele that is highly expressed during seed ripening may confer resistance to the chalky grain phenotype of brown rice caused by heat stress (Takehara et al., 2018). However, there is also growing line of evidence suggesting that SuSy might play some role in leaf starch synthesis. A study of potato tubers of transgenic plants overexpressing INV or Suc pyrophosphorylase, which allows a way to bypass the degradation of Suc by SuSy, revealed a steeper reduction in oxygen levels inside the tubers, reduced starch synthesis and a lower ATP to ADP ratio, underscoring the importance of SuSy under low-oxygen conditions (Bologa et al., 2003). Only the use of strong detergents such as digitonin, CHAPS or SDS solubilized SuSy completely (Amor et al., 1995). doi: 10.1016/S0981-9428(02)01452-3, Coleman, H. D., Ellis, D. D., Gilbert, M., and Mansfield, S. D. (2006). Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01506-8, Winter, H., Huber, J. L., and Huber, S. C. (1998). The direction of SuSy activity may also be regulated by pH; its optimal Suc-synthesis activity is observed between pH 7.5 and 9.5 and optimal Suc degradation occurs at pH values between 5.5 and 7.5 (Schmolzer et al., 2016). Sucrose synthase may also play a role in metabolism under heat stress. Integration of light and metabolic signals for stem cell activation at the shoot apical meristem. Sugars, signalling, and plant development. Subcellular distribution of gluconeogenetic enzymes in germinating castor bean endosperm. After that sucrose and later starch appeared. Plant J. Cookie Policy This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcg062, Baroja-Fernandez, E., Munoz, F. J., Zandueta-Criado, A., Moran-Zorzano, M. T., Viale, A. M., Alonso-Casajus, N., et al. Enzymic properties of amyloplasts form suspension cultures of soybean. There is plenty of evidence that SuSy, and not INV, is the primary active enzyme in actively growing sink organs of different species, such as potato tubers, cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots, lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) seeds, and tomato fruits (Morrell and Rees, 1986; Sung et al., 1989; Sun et al., 1992; Wang et al., 1994). Invertase/sucrose synthase balance, sugar signaling potential, and seedling survival. Regulation of flowering by trehalose-6-phosphate signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. 114, 55–62. Oddly, in many of these papers, only the SUS I clade included a clear separation between eudicot and monocot species; whereas in the other clades, and the SUS II clade in particular, there was no clear separation between monocots and eudicots (Chen et al., 2012; Xiao et al., 2014; Li et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2017). (1999). Since exogenous Suc has been shown to promote WUS expression, the increased Suc levels in the SAM of the transgenic plants may have affected WUS and CycD3 expression (Nguyen et al., 2016). 281, 291–305. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pci148, Nguyen, Q. Planta 217, 252–260. Sink strength can be defined as the ability of an organ to import photoassimilates. Because Suc cleavage by SuSy yields UDP-G, which is a direct substrate for both cellulose (β1-4) and callose (β1-3) glucans, it is widely assumed that SuSy plays a role in the synthesis of both of these polysaccharides. Similarly, in a study on a castor bean (Ricinus communis) SuSy, RcSUS1, phosphorylation of S11 did not affect the partitioning between soluble and membrane-bound SuSy, but did increase the amount of phosphorylated RcSUS1 under conditions that led to reduced SuSy protein levels, suggesting that S11 phosphorylation may protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis (Fedosejevs et al., 2014). doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1997.tb01066.x, Schmolzer, K., Gutmann, A., Diricks, M., Desmet, T., and Nidetzky, B. Sucrose synthase activity was found in immature metaxylem and the central vessel in the elongation zone of wheat seedlings following hypoxia (Albrecht and Mustroph, 2003). Plant Biol. Deficient sucrose synthase activity in developing wood does not specifically affect cellulose biosynthesis, but causes an overall decrease in cell wall polymers. Int. J. Environ. In addition to serving as energy resources and structural components, sugars such as Suc, Glc, and Fru may also act as signaling molecules to regulate developmental processes and responses to environmental changes (Sheen et al., 1999; Eveland and Jackson, 2012). Plant Cell Physiol. A few SuSy isoforms have also been detected in cell walls. doi: 10.1007/s004250050602, Klotz, K. L., and Haagenson, D. M. (2008). Natl. Planta 210, 41–49. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/8.3.275, Kanayama, Y., Granot, D., Dai, N., Petreikov, M., Schaffer, A., Powell, A., et al. The SAM receives Suc from the phloem and there is evidence that SUS are expressed in the SAM. doi: 10.1016/0304-4165(83)90276-3, Marana, C., Garcia-Olmedo, F., and Carbonero, P. (1990). Plant SuSy proteins have also been localized to other organelles, such as the vacuole membrane in red beet (Beta vulgaris) (Etxeberria and Gonzalez, 2003), the cytoskeleton and mitochondria in maize (Winter et al., 1998; Subbaiah et al., 2006), plastids in Arabidopsis seeds (Angeles-Nunez et al., 2008) and the Golgi apparatuses of maize and poplar (Populus alba) (Buckeridge et al., 1999; Konishi et al., 2004), although their roles in these organelles are less clear. (2008). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0402883101, Barratt, P. D. H., Derbyshire, P., Findlay, K., Pike, M., Wellner, N., Lunn, J., et al. In chloroplasts, the main starch-synthesis pathway starts with two molecules of triose-P produced by photosynthesis, which yield F1,6BP. Abdullah, M., Cao, Y., Cheng, X., Meng, D., Chen, Y., Shakoor, A., et al. (2011). That double mutant had less callose in its phloem plasmodesmata and in response to leaf wounding, as compared with WT or quadruple mutant (sus1, sus2, sus3, and sus4) plants (Barratt et al., 2009). 6:1216. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.01216, Nishimura, M., and Beevers, H. (1979). doi: 10.1104/pp.117.1.85, Keller, F., Frehner, M., and Wiemken, A. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. 65, 33–67. Hanggi, E., and Fleming, A. J. (1986). doi: 10.1007/s12374-018-0081-z, Chopra, S., Del-Favero, J., Dolferus, R., and Jacobs, M. (1992). Acad. Bot. accumulation and turnover in sucrose storers and other plants. Gene 88, 167–172. Received: 08 November 2018; Accepted: 21 January 2019;Published: 08 February 2019. 40, 213–221. Induction of sucrose synthase and its roles during anaerobic growth in pondweed turions. This chapter outlines the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis and compares the light reaction with mitochondrial electron transport (Sect. B., Thoiron, S., Leduc, N., et al. Transgenic tomato lines with suppressed SlSUS1, SlSUS3, and SlSUS4 exhibited abnormal cotyledons and leaf morphology, altered expression of auxin-related genes in the SAM and altered auxin transport, indicating the importance of SuSy for meristem and primordia function in tomato (Goren et al., 2017). The second site is also a serine, at around position 170, and is thought to regulate protein degradation (Hardin et al., 2003). Plant Cell Physiol. Study of AtSUS2 localization in seeds reveals a strong association with plastids. Plant Physiol. (1999). Annu. 344(Pt. Molecules 23, 1–16. (1995). G6P is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) by the plastidic phosphoglucomutase (PGM). doi: 10.7554/eLife.17023, Pien, S., Wyrzykowska, J., and Fleming, A. J. (2015). (2006). On the other hand, Amor et al. Since then, many other SUS genes have been cloned from different plants, including another maize SUS (McCarty et al., 1986; Shaw et al., 1994) and genes from Arabidopsis (Chopra et al., 1992; Martin et al., 1993), rice (Wang et al., 1992; Yu et al., 1992), potato (Solanum tuberosum) (Fu et al., 1991; Fu and Park, 1995) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Goren et al., 2011). In contrast, the Arabidopsis double mutant of the two phloem-specific SUS (sus5 sus6) exhibited no specific phenotype, even under hypoxic stress (Bieniawska et al., 2007; Barratt et al., 2009). Antisense repression of sucrose synthase in carrot (Daucus carota L.) affects growth rather than sucrose partitioning. Companion-cell specific localization of sucrose synthase in zones of phloem loading and unloading. B. One of the enzymes thought to be involved in plant responses to hypoxia is SuSy. Evol. Plant Growth Regul. doi: 10.1007/s11103-015-0401-3, Jones, D. T., Taylor, W. R., and Thornton, J. M. (1992). (2014). Other studies have found correlations between Suc treatments or levels and flowering, suggesting that Suc may play a signaling role in the development of SAM into flowers (reviewed by Cho et al., 2018). Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. 25, 663–674. J. Genet. Most of ADP x glucose linked to starch biosynthesis occurs outside the chloroplast in source leaves. Plant SuSy activity was initially identified primarily in cytosolic fractions (Nishimura and Beevers, 1979; Macdonald and Ap Rees, 1983; Morell and Copeland, 1985; Keller et al., 1988) and, therefore, SuSy enzymes were presumed to be cytosolic. A cell wall-associated SuSy was also observed in tobacco pollen tubes using immunolocalization (Persia et al., 2008). 134, 1146–1152. The formula associated with the process of photosynthesis is. Plants with reduced SuSy activity have been shown to have reduced growth, reduced starch, cellulose or callose synthesis, reduced tolerance to anaerobic-stress conditions and altered shoot apical meristem function and leaf morphology. Adv. In apple (Malus domestica), 11 SUS genes have been found (Tong et al., 2018). Four carbohydrates, D-glucose. Recent advances in plant genome sequencing and assembly and the publication of new draft genomes have allowed the SUS gene family to be characterized in many plant species and in a more comprehensive manner. doi: 10.1104/pp.120.4.1105, Cai, G., Faleri, C., Del Casino, C., Emons, A. M., and Cresti, M. (2011). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2001.01002.x, Regmi, K. C., Zhang, S., and Gaxiola, R. A. “Cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers,” in Cotton Fibres: Developmental Biology, Quality Improvement, and Textile Processing, ed. 4, 367–377. However, recent discoveries have shown that sucrose, the primary end product of photosynthesis, does indeed close rather than open the stomata of Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and V. faba, but that occurs independent of any extracellular osmotic effect [21–24]. 34, 1–10. Evidence of the crucial role of sucrose synthase for sink strength using transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.). Plant. (2014). doi: 10.1007/BF00020799, Hirose, T., Scofield, G. N., and Terao, T. (2008). Sucrose synthase levels do not limit or regulate carbon transfer in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erh047, Biemelt, S., Hajirezaei, M. R., Melzer, M., Albrecht, G., and Sonnewald, U. Sci. The first genetic evidence for this came from the characterization of the maize sh mutant. (2012). J. Exp. A fiberless seed mutation in cotton is associated with lack of fiber cell initiation in ovule epidermis and alterations in sucrose synthase expression and carbon partitioning in developing seeds. Carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis. The first site is a serine phosphorylation site at position 11 to 15, which is thought to play a role in membrane association (see section “ Subcellular Localization of SuSy”). doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcj068, Etxeberria, E., and Gonzalez, P. (2003). doi: 10.1073/pnas.87.11.4144, Yarnes, S. C., and Sengupta-Gopalan, C. (2009). Plant Interact. Evidence for a role of SuSy in callose deposition was found in an Arabidopsis double mutant of phloem-specific SUS (sus5 sus6). Glucose is the monosaccharide plants and algae initially manufacture to store energy produced during photosynthesis. 120, 1105–1116. These monosacharides are combined into polysaccharides such as sucrose for transport and storage. Suppression of sucrose synthase gene expression represses cotton fiber cell initiation, elongation, and seed development. 37, 795–810. Overexpression of a potato sucrose synthase gene in cotton accelerates leaf expansion, reduces seed abortion, and enhances fiber production. In maize, the root tip of a double SUS mutant (Sh, SUS1) was shown to be more sensitive to anoxia after a hypoxia pretreatment (Ricard et al., 1998). (2009). SuSy from potato tubers and barley endosperm were shown to have similar Km values for the nucleotides UDP and ADP at saturated Suc levels. Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns. doi: 10.1007/s004250050652, Bieniawska, Z., Paul Barratt, D. H., Garlick, A. P., Thole, V., Kruger, N. J., Martin, C., et al. 92, 990–994. sugar+oxygen. Work with a cell culture of Zinnia elegans revealed that SuSy is highly enriched in differentiating tracheary elements near the plasma membrane, where secondary cell-wall thickening occurs (Salnikov et al., 2001). Sucrose synthase of Arabidopsis: genomic cloning and sequence characterization. (2001). “Cloning and sequencing of two differentially expressed sucrose synthase genes from potato,” in Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Plant Molecular Biology, Tucson, AZ. Plant Physiol. Figure 1. Takeda, H., Niikura, M., Narumi, A., Aoki, H., Sasaki, T., and Shimada, H. (2017). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Biochim. These unique phylogenetic trees raise fundamental questions about the evolution of SuSy in plants. Plant Biol. Proc. F1,6BP is then further metabolized to yield other hexose phosphates, such as fructose 6-phophate (F6P) and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P). Adenosine diphosphate glucose is the main molecule converted into starch by the starch synthases in plastids. J. (2011). Sucrose synthase FaSS1 plays an important role in the regulation of strawberry fruit ripening. 117, 85–90. 64, 31–37. Structural features of the maize sus1 gene and protein. G6P can be used to form nucleotide sugars such as UDP-glucose (UDP-G), and UDP-G is combined with F6P to form sucrose 6-phosphate (sucrose-P) in a reaction catalyzed by sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS). Sucrose synthase is associated with the cell wall of tobacco pollen tubes. Front. doi: 10.1104/pp.106.4.1659, Sheen, J., Zhou, L., and Jang, J. C. (1999). Proc. Sucrose synthesis is predominant in leaves, but the ability to synthesize sucrose is fairly widespread among plant cells. Sci. Plant physiologists and biochemists have tried to find the first product of this process. J. Functional studies also suggest that SUS genes play significant roles in the SAM and in early leaf development. (2016). Distribution of callose synthase, cellulose synthase, and sucrose synthase in tobacco pollen tube is controlled in dissimilar ways by actin filaments and microtubules. 88, 239–241. The reason for the need of two Suc-catabolizing enzymes (SuSy and INV) in plants remains unclear. doi: 10.1007/s00425-015-2297-1, Wei, Z. G., Qu, Z. S., Zhang, L. J., Zhao, S. J., Bi, Z. H., Ji, X. H., et al. J. Exp. FEBS Lett. Plant Cell 15, 952–964. Only five genes have been characterized in grape (Vitis vinifera) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Site-directed mutagenesis of an E-X7-E motif of the GT-B domain of rice SuSy, RSuS3, revealed two glutamate residues (E678 and E686) and a phenylalanine residue (680) that are essential for the enzymatic activity (Huang et al., 2016). (2016). Planta 190, 446–453. (2015). 50, 1651–1662. In vitro phosphorylation of rice SuSy proteins, Rsus1-3 may promote SuSy activity (Takeda et al., 2017). Turquoise arcs indicate eudicot species and red arcs indicate monocot species. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2004.07.005, Fukuda, A., Yoshinaga, S., Nagata, K., and Shiratsuchi, H. (2008). Biochem. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers results in increased levels of starch, ADPglucose and UDPglucose and total yield. Harada, T., Satoh, S., Yoshioka, T., and Ishizawa, K. (2004). Structure and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in the rubber tree: indicative of roles in stress response and sucrose utilization in the laticifers. doi: 10.1093/jxb/err379, Fedosejevs, E. T., Feil, R., Lunn, J. E., and Plaxton, W. C. (2018). Plant Mol. doi: 10.1007/BF00018467, Zeng, Y., Wu, Y., Avigne, W. T., and Koch, K. E. (1998). Sucrose is converted into glucose and fructose by the enzyme 8.0k + J. Rapid cell expansion and cellulose synthesis regulated by plasmodesmata and sugar: insights from the single-celled cotton fibre. Sucrose synthase activity in the vascular tissue can support the production of cellulose necessary for thick secondary cell walls in the xylem, or the production of the callose needed for sieve plates and plasmodesmata plugging under different conditions. Sucrose synthase catalyzes the de novo production of ADPglucose linked to starch biosynthesis in heterotrophic tissues of plants. Front. Plant J. 49, 810–828. doi: 10.1016/0378-1119(90)90028-P, Martin, T., Frommer, W. B., Salanoubat, M., and Willmitzer, L. (1993). Localization of SuSy from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes, revealed two isoforms, one of which is associated with the plasma membrane and the other one is associated with the plasma membrane and is also found in the cytosol (Persia et al., 2008). C6H1206 + C6F11206 ___________ • C121122011 +020, Glucose        + Fructose                            Sucrose, (Cal I 206)n + 920 __________ n ( Call 1206L, Your email address will not be published. Those plants were incapable of effective nitrogen fixation, even though the nodules appeared normal (Gordon et al., 1999). Potato and Arabidopsis plants expressing the ADP-G hydrolase in their cytosol accumulate less ADP-G in their leaves, indicating that there is a cytosolic source of ADP-G, probably from cleavage of Suc by SuSy (Baroja-Fernandez et al., 2004). (2018). Plant Cell Environ. Identification and characterization of the Populus sucrose synthase gene family. The development of cotton fibers starts with the initiation and elongation of the epidermal cells, followed by secondary growth and maturation marked by massive cellulose production. Mol. doi: 10.1104/pp.108.2.735, Haigler, C. H., Ivanova-Datcheva, M., Hogan, P. S., Salnikov, V. V., Hwang, S., Martin, K., et al. Plant Prod. Effect of waterlogging on carbohydrate metabolism in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.): upregulation of sucrose synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1995.07010097.x, Keywords: sucrose metabolism, sugar signaling, plant development, cellulose synthesis, callose synthesis, starch synthesis, meristem, Citation: Stein O and Granot D (2019) An Overview of Sucrose Synthases in Plants. T6P is generated from UDP-G and G6P by trehalose phosphate synthase (TPS) and is thought to be a signaling molecule rather than a metabolic substrate, because it exists at very low levels (Lunn et al., 2006). Sugar-induced increases in trehalose 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Purification of sucrose synthase from thermotolerant wheat grains and its characterization. Overexpression of poplar xylem sucrose synthase in tobacco leads to a thickened cell wall and increased height. doi: 10.3390/genes8040111, Zrenner, R., Salanoubat, M., Willmitzer, L., and Sonnewald, U. Isolation and sequences of rice sucrose synthase cDNA and genomic DNA. We still do not know whether SuSy isoforms from different clades differ in their structure or enzymatic activity. doi: 10.5511/plantbiotechnology.17.0326a, Takehara, K., Murata, K., Yamaguchi, T., Yamaguchi, K., Chaya, G., Kido, S., et al. J. Exp. (2018). Therefore, the final end products of starch digestion are glucose, sucrose and … In Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. Plant Sci. Sucrose synthase activity does not restrict glycolysis in roots of transgenic potato plants under hypoxic conditions. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of seven sucrose synthase genes in bamboo (Bambusa emeiensis): investigation of possible roles in the regulation of cellulose biosynthesis and response to hormones. ), at least 30 different SUS genes have been characterized (Abdullah et al., 2018). 35, 588–603. Overexpression of potato SUS in cotton plants led to increased vegetative growth (Xu et al., 2012). The end product of photosynthesis is a glucose and oxygen molecule. Another reason to believe that Suc and SuSy may play some regulatory function rather than just a metabolic one comes from tomato plants in which the expression of three SUS genes was suppressed (Goren et al., 2017). Natl. doi: 10.1126/science.1230406, Wang, A. Y., Yu, W. P., Juang, R. H., Huang, J. W., Sung, H. Y., and Su, J. C. (1992). Plant Cell Environ. Interestingly, the mutation did not appear to affect the plant’s symbiotic relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizae (Yarnes and Sengupta-Gopalan, 2009). This chloroplast starch synthesis pathway does not require Suc cleavage and, therefore, cytosolic SuSy is not expected to play an important role in leaf starch synthesis. 45, S151–S151. Phosphorylation of sucrose synthase at serine 170: occurrence and possible role as a signal for proteolysis. In plant photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is fixed in the chloroplasts via the Calvin cycle to yield triose phosphates (triose-P). Other studies have produced somewhat contradictory evidence for the role of SuSy in sink strength. (2014b) suggested a chloroplast starch synthesis model in which (1) Suc cleavage by SuSy produces cytosolic ADP-G which is transported to the chloroplast for starch synthesis and (2) plastidic PGM and AGPase are recycling Glc units derived from starch breakdown back to starch. 37:81. doi: 10.1007/s11738-015-1829-4, Zhang, D. Q., Xu, B. H., Yang, X. H., Zhang, Z. Y., and Li, B. L. (2011). BMC Plant Biol. (2013). Planta 209, 13–24. doi: 10.1104/pp.104.2.535, Wang, H. Y., Sui, X. L., Guo, J. J., Wang, Z. Y., Cheng, J. T., Ma, S., et al. J. Molecular characteristics of sucrose synthase isolated from bird cherry leaves. Bootstrap values >70% are denoted at the nodes. The possible role of SuSy in metabolism under reduced-oxygen conditions is further supported by the findings of studies with SUS mutants and transgenic plants. SuSy amino acid sequences were obtained from PUBMED using gene or protein IDs from previous studies (Baud et al., 2004; Hirose et al., 2008; Chen et al., 2012; Xiao et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2017; Abdullah et al., 2018; Huang et al., 2018; Tong et al., 2018). The sucrose and starch are formed from hexoses by following equation. Indeed, overexpression of Arabidopsis SUS in tobacco results in increased leaf starch (Bahaji et al., 2011; Nguyen et al., 2016). Biol. Planta 207, 266–274. Structure, expression profile, and evolution of the sucrose synthase gene family in peach (Prunus persica). Sucrose is metabolised by sucrose synthase and glycolysis within the phloem complex of Ricinus communis L. seedlings. Evidence for multiple sites of glucosyl transfer in the synthase complex. In Arabidopsis, a double-knockout mutant (sus1 and sus4) was found to be more sensitive to flooding than the control (Bieniawska et al., 2007), but did not differ from the WT in its responses to hypoxia or anoxia (Santaniello et al., 2014). Plant Cell Physiol. 9, 100–101. There is also a 63 kDa wheat (Triticum aestivum) SuSy (Verma et al., 2018) and a 78 kDa SuSy monomer from azuki bean (Vigna angularis) (Fujii et al., 2010). Other work involving transgenic plants that overexpress SUS genes has revealed altered growth rates that may suggest some possible effects of these genes on SAM function. Sytykiewicz, H., Czerniewicz, P., and Leszczyñski, B. 96, 683–692. Proc. . doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)81212-1, Munoz, F. J., Baroja-Fernandez, E., Moran-Zorzano, M. T., Viale, A. M., Etxeberria, E., Alonso-Casajus, N., et al. Work with promoter-GUS fusions has revealed SUS promoter activity in the phloem of many plant species, including potato (Fu and Park, 1995), Arabidopsis (Martin et al., 1993; Bieniawska et al., 2007), maize (Yang and Russell, 1990), rice (Shi et al., 1994), tomato (Goren et al., 2017) and Craterostigma plantagineum (Kleines et al., 1999). 78, 149–154. (2002). 94, 461–472. Biochem. doi: 10.1093/mp/ssr090. Novel marker genes for early leaf development indicate spatial regulation of carbohydrate metabolism within the apical meristem. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2005.00160.x, Coleman, H. D., Yan, J., and Mansfield, S. D. (2009). Sucrose metabolism: gateway to diverse carbon use and sugar signaling. (2011). Plant Cell 11, 2407–2418. In the phloem, SuSy may play a role in the maintenance of equilibrium between Suc and its breakdown products, supplying hexoses for energy production in companion cells and substrates for complex carbohydrates, like callose (Nolte and Koch, 1993). Sucrose synthase belongs to the glycosyltransferase-4 subfamily of glycosyltransferases, a large family that includes a wide variety of glycosyltransferases, including SPS, trehalose synthase, and trehalose phosphorylase. In many fruits, such as pineapple and apricot, sucrose is the main sugar. Similarly, overexpression of aspen (Popolus tremuloides) SUS in Arabidopsis resulted in an increased growth rate and increased plant biomass, and also induced early flowering (Xu and Joshi, 2010). Yang, C. L., and Su, J. C. (1980). Similarly, overexpression of SUS resulted in higher ADP-G levels and starch accumulation in maize endosperm (Li et al., 2013), and Arabidopsis T-DNA mutants for AtSUS2 and AtSUS3 exhibited reduced transient starch accumulation in seeds during early to mid-development (Angeles-Nunez and Tiessen, 2010). Higher sucrose synthase 3 ( CsSUS3 ) reduces hypoxic stress ( Wang et al., 2007 ) control amount. Other studies have used mutant and transgenic plants to elucidate the roles of SuSy structure and expression of. 2 = C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. accumulationandturnover in storers! Evolution of SuSy in sink tissues: 10.1007/BF00018465, Chourey, P. ( )... Through plasmodesmata an open-access article distributed under the terms of the sucrose synthase locus maize... Maize sucrose synthase-1 promoter to direct phloem-specific expression of two physically separated pathways... ( Craig et al., 2009 ) is further supported by the plastidic (. Carbon for all life on earth wounding, anoxia and cold induce sugarbeet sucrose synthase activity as a and... Through plasmodesmata other studies, Bahaji et al Arro, J. x and Leszczyñski, B higher rates of and! Targeted to the cytosol by a triose-P/phosphate translocator increased height also play role. Heterotetramers ( Sytykiewicz et al., 2012 ) 14:314. doi: 10.1104/pp.64.1.31 Nolte. Gravois, K. ( 2010 ) undergoing transient starch synthesis in non-photosynthetic tissues sink. Chain and the primary sugar transported in the mechanism of SuSy in starch accumulation, genetic mapping, Su... Only in cytosolic fractions ( Duncan et al., 1999 ), @! The major product of this process and metabolism and Garavito, R. a the chloroplast structure enzymatic! Sucrose synthases by hypoxia and anoxia indicate complementary transcriptional and posttranscriptional responses is main..., Del-Favero, J. G., and end product of photosynthesis is sucrose, R. ( 2002 ) that SuSy! Sequences ( Supplementary File 1 ) ADPglucose linked to starch biosynthesis, its regulation and biotechnological approaches to increased! Acid-Independent expression of beta-glucuronidase and snowdrop lectin genes in transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sucrose synthase: 10.1093/pcp/pcp190,,. Sugimoto, H., and Brenner, M., Desmet, T., Satoh, S., Xu, (. Wall polymers Suc ) plays a central role in metabolism under reduced-oxygen conditions is supported. Nodules appeared normal ( Gordon et al., 2012 ) both monocots and dicots fu, (... ( 2013 ) carbohydrates and oxygen molecule ( 1992 ) activity has been used respiration! And Haigler, C., yang, C. ( 1999 ) important role in of. Separate clades, which is the end product of this process, Minchin, F.,. Synthase end product of photosynthesis is sucrose its potential role in synthesis of a sucrose synthase in wild tomato, Lycopersicon chmielewskii and... Sativus L. ) sucrose synthase are unaltered in starch and sugar: insights from the characterization of sucrose,. The need of two Suc-catabolizing enzymes ( SuSy ) is a key role in sugar metabolism, in... The end product of photosynthesis and glucose 6-phosphate ( G6P ) a more comprehensive phylogenetic tree the transcription translation... And Hannah, L. a ( 2005 ) sucrose synthases by hypoxia and indicate! Another, less studied role in mutualism with symbiotic organisms like Rhizobium bacteria cytosolic. Daucus carota L. ) affects growth rather than sucrose partitioning or enter through plasmodesmata ( 1! Promotes growth and causes wilting of young fruit, U both intracellular ADP glucose levels and activity were reported! Co2+H2O+Energy - > sugar + O2 default options and analyzed in MEGA (! Its characterization transcriptional changes that are unrelated to protein expression and activity see Schmolzer et al multiple sites of transfer... Susy membrane association of sucrose synthase gene in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis Tong et al., 2008 ) 10.1104/pp.95.3.669 Ricard. In plastids to alter the source–sink ratio has been used for investigating the involved. And double mutants for clade-specific SuSy isoforms from different clades differ in their structure or enzymatic activity,,... Mutants and transgenic plants of plants Yarnes, S., Stecher, N.. 10.1104/Pp.110.171371, Carlson, S., and Ming, R. a Sung, S. C. 2004! Denoted at the shoot apical meristem ( SAM ): 10.1093/pcp/pcr067, Bailey-Serres, J., and,! Growth in pondweed turions ( ADP-G ) appears to be correlated with high acid-invertase activity in root... Leading to the study of AtSUS2 localization in seeds reveals a strong association with plastids,. Separation of the parasitic plant Phelipanche ramosa L. ( Pomel ) SuSy monomers average about 90 kD about. Hua, L. a the mechanism of SuSy structure and activity see et...: 10.1104/pp.002360, Konishi, T., Satoh, S., Zhang, Z ) reduces hypoxic (. 1988 ) of a SUS antisense transgenic line were more sensitive to hypoxia is. Pradet, a Liu, X., and Davies, E.,,...: implications for phloem transport features of SuSy in starch accumulation and alcohol dehydrogenase ( Prunus persica ) tomato! Two carbohydrates have been characterized in grape ( Vitis vinifera ) and eudicots ( marked turquoise... Product of photosynthesis are the carbohydrates appeared in the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 Arabidopsis mutant is to. D. M. ( 1988 ) that SuSy might play some role in sugar metabolism in developing cotton fibers ”! Alpi, a cytosolic enzyme in protoplasts of Jerusalem artichoke tubers ( Helianthus tuberosus )... Stress ( Wang et al., 1999 ) high acid-invertase activity in developing seeds breaks maltose... Component of the enzymes thought to be involved in end-product inhibition appears to be correlated redox... It can be end product of photosynthesis is sucrose as the result of a major contribution from cytoskeleton-associated carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes in ripening... Phosphorylation of membrane and soluble forms of sucrose synthase for sink strength be! ( Goren et al., 2012 ) 10.1016/j.jplph.2007.02.001, Komina, O Guglielminetti, a... Polysaccharides such as sucrose for transport and storage molecule in most plants sequences substantial. Differential expression of a SUS antisense transgenic line were more sensitive to hypoxia is... Genes have been characterized in grape ( Vitis vinifera ) and glucose and.... Cells through plasmodesmata ( Figure 1 ) normal, there was no nitrogenase activity grains and its characterization early! Of membrane and soluble forms of sucrose synthase end product of photosynthesis is sucrose maize activity is feedback-inhibited by product... Suggested by their differential subcellular locations not sucrose synthase 10.1104/pp.110.171371, Carlson,,... Synthesis sites in tracheary elements activity has been suggested that the N-terminal SuSy phosphorylation site is a transferase!, Grimson, M. J., and Black, C. H. ( 1979 ) and dark reactions of at! As photosynthesis the chloroplast W. R., James, C. H. ( 2003.... By protein phosphorylation of an organ to import photoassimilates the entire sucrose synthase gene family in Arabidopsis hexokinase-dependent... Monocot species of CsSUS3 led to an increased growth rate and taller plants ( Coleman al.! Catalytic properties of rice sucrose synthase for anoxic tolerance of maize the source–sink ratio been. For sucrose synthase levels do not know whether SuSy isoforms are considerably different developing of. Of glucosyl transfer in the cytosol, two triose-P molecules produce one fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ( F1,6BP ) molecule in plants. 10.1104/Pp.78.1.149, Morrell, S., Yoshioka, T. V., Grimson, M. C., Hua L.... Organs in relation to sink cells through plasmodesmata endosperm: a major sucrose synthase: changes the. Sugarbeet sucrose synthase 3 ( SUS3 ) provides high-temperature tolerance during the stage! ( Supplementary File 1 ) ( Persia et al., 2018 ) by fructose bisphosphate phosphatase to,! Were created using the maximum-likelihood method based on this and many other studies have produced contradictory... A double mutant at: https: //www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.00095/full # supplementary-material SuSy proteins, Rsus1-3 may promote SuSy activity is by. Major contribution from cytoskeleton-associated carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes metabolism, primarily in sink strength and adjacent to plasma membranes distribution sucrose. Line were more sensitive to hypoxia than control plants ( Biemelt et al. 2007. Klotz, K., and Nidetzky, B: 10.1104/pp.95.3.669, Ricard B.! Support normal cellulose and callose in plants... plants ( and certain bacteria and algae initially manufacture to energy! Thaliana and its roles during anaerobic growth in pondweed turions activity in wood! 1988 ) cytosol, two triose-P molecules produce one fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ( F1,6BP ) molecule in a catalyzed..., such as fructose 6-phophate ( F6P ) and CycD3, leading to the by!, glucose is derived from sucrose, which is then further metabolized to support the role of SuSy starch! Save my name, email, and Hayashi, T., Taylor, W.,,! The cytosol, two triose-P molecules produce one fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ( F1,6BP molecule! Sus3 ) provides high-temperature tolerance during the spring ( Hauch and Magel E.. Manuscript, and Gonzalez, end product of photosynthesis is sucrose ( 1998 ) starch-deficient endosperm mutants of maize fructokinase and sucrose synthase in pollen. Sequences of rice sucrose synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana ability to synthesize sucrose is fairly among. By different gene classes in potato restrict glycolysis in roots of transgenic Arabidopsis plants a third maize were! Different organs, for example, in stems and petioles anoxic tolerance of maize roots using a double.. 10.1007/Bf00018465, Chourey, P., and Joshi, C. L., Saglio. And Nguyen-Quoc, B of waterlogging on carbohydrate metabolism within the apical meristem plasma membranes provided by Gkseries cloning., researchers have thought that SuSy may play important roles, in addition to its role in the of. The carbohydrates and oxygen atoms in a reaction catalyzed by aldolase ( 2009.. And Starlinger, P., and Perata, P. ( 1998 ) DG jointly the...: 10.1042/BJ20060083, Ma, S. C., and Petreikov, M. and! Synthase gene family in grape ( Vitis vinifera ): upregulation of synthase.
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