Leaching processes produce residues, while ef-fluent treatment results in sludges, which can be sent for metals recovery. Adding silica also reduces the melting point (or, more properly, the liquidus temperature) of the slag, meaning that the smelting process can be operated at a lower temperature. Copper smelting is the process of separating copper metal from the rock in which it is naturally embedded by melting it. Figure 6 shows the charging procedure. The term copper smelting may refer to this melting step in particular or it may refer somewhat less formally to the entire process overall. The copper concentrates are fed through the flash smelting furnace with oxygen-enriched air. Experimental Methods Industrial copper concentrates, matte, slag and flue dust from Chilean smelters were used as test materials. The considered smelting process includes a continuously functioning flash smelting furnace (FSF) and several Pierce-Smith converters operated in batches. Table 1 shows the example of the chemical compositions of them. Electrolytic copper refining –concentrate to wire in a single process • $1.9 million in funding from US DOE awarded to MIT to explore molten sulfide electrolysis as a potential replacement for the traditional pyro-metallurgical copper smelting process DE-FOA-0001465 In the furnace, the concentrates are instantly oxidized, after which they melt and separate by their own reaction heat into copper matte with a grade of 65% and slag consisting of iron oxide, silica, and … Pollution Prevention and Control The process is highly energy efficient because it makes full use of the reaction heat of the concentrate, meaning Copper sulfide and iron oxide can mix, but when sufficient silica is added, a separate slag layer is formed. The slag forming reaction is: FeO + SiO 2 → FeO.SiO 2 process provides an innovative, high . 2. The reverbs began to decline in the Solid feed combined with the high level of oxygen enrichment produces a low volume of offgas, rich in SO2. Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal.It is a form of extractive metallurgy.It is used to extract many metals from their ores, including silver, iron, copper, and other base metals.Smelting uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag and leaving the metal base behind. The entire process con-tributes to considerable resource savings as opposed to the process of similar capacity with three converters. This is accomplished through a series of several processing steps. More than half of the world’s primary copper and nickel is produced using Outotec’s proprietary process. It can be used for a range of applications including primary and secondary copper smelting and copper converting, primary and secondary lead smelting, primary nickel smelting and converting, and tin, The reverberatory furnace dominated copper matte smelting for much of the 1900s, because it was an excellent process for smelting fine concentrate from flotation. Copper smelting plants separate elemental copper from copper concentrates through multiple sulphide oxidizing stages. It is a fossil fuel fired hearth furnace for smelting concentrate and producing copper matte. The process is very easy to operate and is autogenous with combustion air enriched to approximately 30% oxygen. Automating scheduling provides advisory information to operators. The distributions of copper and the other elements among the gas, slag and matte were also investigated. intensity, yet low cost submerged lance smelting process that is easy to operate. 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